Forum mondial de l’eau : La neuvième édition s’ouvre ce lundi au Centre international de conférence Abdou Diouf

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Vingt-cinq ans après le sommet inaugural, tenu à Marrakech (Maroc), le Sénégal accueille à partir de ce lundi 21 mars la neuvième édition du Forum mondial de l’eau. Le thème, les axes de réflexion, les retombées pour le pays hôte… : voici dix choses à savoir sur cet événement qui se tiendra jusqu’au 26.

1. Une première en Afrique subsaharienne

Le Forum mondial de l’eau a été lancé en 1997à Marrakech. Il a fallu attendre vingt-cinq ans pour que l’Afrique renoue avec ce sommet. La neuvième édition, qui s’ouvre ce lundi au Centre international de conférence Abdou Diouf de Diamniadio, se tient pour la première en Afrique subsaharienne où les problèmes liés à l’eau sont plus prégnants qu’ailleurs.

2. Effet Covid-19

La huitième édition du Forum mondial de l’eau s’était tenue au Brésil en 2018. Deux ans plus tôt, le Sénégal savait qu’il accueillera la neuvième. Celle-ci était initialement programmée en 2021, mais la Covid-19 a conduit à son report à cette année.

3. Pourquoi le Sénégal

Le Conseil mondial de l’eau, organisateur du Forum, avait plusieurs options lorsqu’il s’est agi de désigner le pays hôte de la neuvième édition. Selon son président, Loïc Fauchon, le Sénégal a été choisi pour sa légitimité et ses capacités à accueillir une rencontre de cette envergure. «La stabilité du Sénégal et sa culture démocratique ont été des éléments importants dans la décision du Conseil lorsque nous avons envisagé plusieurs pays et villes de l’Afrique, indique Loïc Fauchon dans les colonnes du Soleil. En plus, l’image du Sénégal à l’international a beaucoup pesé. En Afrique, le Sénégal est un pays référence dans certains domaines, notamment de l’eau. Donc, la discussion n’a pas été longue pour le choix du Sénégal.»

4. Droit d’entrée

Lorsque le Conseil mondial de l’eau a choisi le Sénégal pour l’organisation du neuvième Forum mondial de l’eau, le pays devait s’acquitter d’un droit d’entrée (Fee). Une sorte de contribution pour le tenuede la rencontre. Dakar a déboursé 4 millions d’euros (2,6 milliards de francs CFA), selon Loïc Fauchon, le président du Conseil mondial de l’eau. Qui assure que tous les pays hôtes du Forum ont mis la main à la poche.  

5. Absence de la Ville de Dakar

En théorie, la Ville de Dakar est co-organisatrice du Forum mondial de l’eau avec le gouvernement du Sénégal et le Conseil mondial de l’eau. Mais lors de la cérémonie d’ouverture du sommet, ce lundi 21 mars, le maire de Dakar, Barthélémy Dias (opposition), ni ses représentants ne seront dans la salle des plénières du Centre international de conférence Abdou Diouf de Diamniadio.

L’édile de la capitale sénégalaise a décidé de bouder la rencontre pour protester contre le fait que son institution aurait été mise à l’écart de l’organisation, ravalée au rang de «simple invitée», et qu’il n’aurait même pas le droit lors de la cérémonie d’ouverture de prononcer un mot de bienvenue aux participants.

Ce grief est rejeté par le secrétariat exécutif du Forum, qui assure que la Ville a été associée à tout le processus d’organisation du sommet. Pour ce qui est du «mot de bienvenue», le secrétariat assure que «pour un événement en présence du chef de l’Etat et de ses homologues, il est de pratique que seul le président de la République prononce une allocution au nom de l’Etat et du peuple sénégalais».

6. Le thème de la 9e édition

Le sommet a pour thème : «La sécurité de l’eau pour la paix et le développement». Une façon de montrer aux autorités gouvernementales que la question de l’eau est une priorité. «Nous n’avancerons que lorsqu’il y a une volonté politique, que si les efforts sont portés sur l’eau. D’où le choix du thème de ce forum», confie le président du Conseil mondial de l’eau, Loïc Fauchon.   

7. Pourquoi le «Forum des réponses»

La neuvième édition est dénommée «Forum des réponses». «On voit tous les jours les solutions, mais on n’a pas les réponses sur le terrain, tranche dans Le Soleil Loïc Fauchon. (…) Les réponses, c’est ce qui est appliqué sur le terrain et qui donne des résultats.»

En guise d’exemple, le  président du Conseil mondial de l’eau cite la gestion du Fleuve Sénégal par l’OMVS (Organisation pour la mise en valeur du Fleuve Sénégal) et celle du Fleuve Gambie par l’OVMG (Organisation pour la mise en valeur du Fleuve Gambie).

8. Huit cents organisations mobilisées

En prélude au neuvième Forum mondial de l’eau, il y a eu un énorme travail sur le contenu des discussions. Le président du Conseil mondial de l’eau informe que «pas moins de 800 organisations du monde entier, y compris sénégalaises, ont travaillé sur toutes les thématiques qui vont être exposées ou synthétisées pendant la durée de l’événement».

9. Axes de réflexion

Le thème du Forum mondial de l’eau est : «La sécurité de l’eau pour la paix et le développement». Les discussions autour de ce thème vont porter sur quatre points : «comment sécuriser la ressource à travers le monde ?», «le lien entre le monde rural et le monde urbain», «la coopération internationale», «le partage de l’innovation et de la connaissance».  

10. Un contre-sommet

Parallèlement au Forum mondial de l’eau, la Ville de Dakar prévoit de tenir un contre-sommet. La rencontre a pour thème : «L’eau à Dakar, Dakar dans les eaux». Dans cette perspective, la mairie de la capitale sénégalaise avait organisé, vendredi dernier, un panel sur la question. Les problèmes d’inondations, le défaut d’assainissement et de protection civile ont été au cœur des discussions.   

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